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  • John Christopher

What is Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)?

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a widely used form of psychotherapy that focuses on the connection between thoughts, emotions, and behaviours. CBT is a goal-oriented and evidence-based approach that aims to help individuals identify and modify unhelpful patterns of thinking and behaviour that contribute to their difficulties.


Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Thoughts Emotions Behaviours


CBT operates on the principle that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviours are interconnected, and by changing one aspect, we can influence the others. The therapeutic process involves collaboration between the individual and the therapist, working together to identify and challenge negative or distorted thoughts and beliefs that may contribute to emotional distress.


Through CBT, individuals learn to recognise and understand the link between their thoughts, emotions, and behaviours. They explore how certain thought patterns or beliefs can contribute to negative emotions or unhelpful behaviours. The therapist helps the individual develop more adaptive and realistic ways of thinking, which in turn can lead to healthier emotions and more constructive behaviours.


CBT incorporates various techniques and strategies to facilitate change. These may include:

1. Cognitive Restructuring: This technique involves examining and challenging negative or irrational thoughts and replacing them with more balanced and realistic ones. By identifying and questioning unhelpful thinking patterns, individuals can develop more accurate and positive perspectives.


2. Behavioural Activation: This approach focuses on engaging in positive and rewarding activities to counteract feelings of depression or anxiety. By increasing participation in enjoyable and meaningful activities, individuals can improve their mood and reduce avoidance behaviours.


3. Exposure Therapy: This technique is often used to treat anxiety disorders. It involves gradually and safely exposing individuals to feared situations or triggers, helping them confront their fears and learn that they are manageable. Over time, this can lead to a reduction in anxiety and avoidance behaviours.

4. Skills Training: CBT may involve teaching individuals specific skills to manage their emotions or cope with challenging situations. These may include relaxation techniques, problem-solving skills, assertiveness training, or communication skills.

CBT is typically a structured and time-limited therapy, with a focus on specific goals and measurable outcomes. It is frequently used to treat a wide range of mental health issues, including depression, anxiety disorders, such as generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), panic attacks, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), among others.


The effectiveness of CBT has been supported by numerous research studies, and it is considered one of the most empirically validated therapy modalities. It provides individuals with practical tools and strategies they can apply in their everyday lives to manage their thoughts, emotions, and behaviours more effectively.

It is important to note that CBT is usually delivered by trained mental health professionals, such as clinical psychologists, or psychotherapists, who tailor the therapy to the individual's specific needs and goals.

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